Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of communicable diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions in 149 countries and affect more than one billion people, costing developing economies billions of dollars every year. They mainly affect populations living in poverty, without adequate sanitation and in close contact with infectious vectors and domestic animals and livestock.
Effective control against NTDs can be achieved when several public health approaches are combined. Interventions are therefore guided by local epidemiology and availability of appropriate detection, prevention and control measures that can be delivered locally. Implementation of appropriate measures with high coverage will lead to achieving the WHO NTD Roadmap targets resulting in the elimination of many diseases and the eradication of at least two by 2020.
Filoviruses represent a significant public health threat worldwide. West Africa recently experienced the largest-scale and most complex filovirus outbreak yet known, which underlines the need for a predictive understanding of the geographic distribution and potential for transmission to humans of these viruses. Here, we used ecological niche modeling techniques to understand the relationship between known filovirus occurrences and environmental characteristics. Our study derived a picture of the potential transmission geography of Ebola virus species and Marburg, paired with views of the spatial uncertainty associated with model-to-model variation in our predictions.
Rift Valley Fever is an acute zoonotic viral disease caused by Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV)
that affects ruminants and humans in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. We used phylogenetic analyses to understand the demographic history of RVFV populations, using sequence data from the three minigenomic segments of the virus. We used phylogeographic approaches to infer RVFV historical movement patterns across its geographic range, and to reconstruct transitions among host species.
The Americas are presently experiencing the most serious known outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV). Here, we present a novel set of analyses using environmental characteristics, vector mosquito distributions, and socioeconomic risk factors to develop the first map to detail global ZIKV transmission risk in multiple dimensions based on ecological niche models. Our model predictions were tested against independent evaluation data sets, and all models had predictive ability significantly better than random expectations. The study addresses urgent knowledge gaps regarding the potential geographic scope of the current ZIKV epidemic, the global potential for spread of ZIKV, and drivers of ZIKV transmission. Our analysis of potential drivers of ZIKV distributions globally identified areas vulnerable in terms of some drivers, but not for others. The results of these analyses can guide regional education and preparedness efforts, such that medical personnel will be better prepared for diagnosis of potential ZIKV cases as they appear.
Plasmodium vivax has the broadest geographic distribution worldwide, and is a rising issue outside sub-Saharan Africa. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than a third of the world’s population, mostly in Asia and Latin America, is at risk of P. vivax malaria infection. In 2013, this parasite was responsible for more than one million cases in four countries (Ethiopia, India, Indonesia and Pakistan).
Schistosomiasis remains a public health challenge with over 600 million people at risk of infection worldwide. Te transmission of the disease is linked to contact with infected water bodies such as rivers, streams, pools and lakes containing cercaria in endemic communities.
Schisto and Ladders™ game is a board game designed from the popular Snake and Ladders game. The game aims to elicit positive behavioural changes in players by informing and educating the players about schistosomiasis, its transmission, control, and prevention. The game is based on the concept of reward for good health behaviours by moving up a ladder and punishment for risky health behaviours by being bitten by the Schistosoma worm. The game has several health education messages presented in the children-friendly pictorial
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disease found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where it is a major public health problem. It is caused by the helminth parasites <i>Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugiamalayi</i>, and<i> B. timori</i>, and is transmitted by mosquitoes. The availability of tools and strategies for the control of the disease led to the World Health Assembly resolution (WHA 50.29) calling on member states to work towards the elimination of LF as a public health problem by 2020. The World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) in 2000, with the principal objective of breaking the cycle of transmission of <i>W. bancrofti</i> and <i>Brugia spp</i>. through the application of annual mass drug administration (MDA) to entire at-risk populations for a period of five to six years. In 2012, 73 countries were endemic (81 at the onset of the GPELF), with 1.4 billion people at risk, 120 million people infected, and 40 million people affected by LF-related morbidity.
The prestigious international weekly interdisciplinary scientific journal – Nature, has published an article featuring Tom Kariuki, a Kenyan immunologist and founding member of ARNTD, who has been tapped to lead a new funding platform for African research. The Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in Science in Africa – AESA, will be operating from the headquarters of the African Academy of Sciences in Nairobi. AESA’s aim is to strengthen African science and researchers, as well as to shift the centre of gravity for African funding decisions from London, Seattle and Geneva etc. to the continent. Three international funding bodies (the Wellcome Trust, the UK Department for International Development, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation) are supporting the initiative for the start up with a seed cash of around USD 5.5 million. However in the longer term AESA is counting on the participation of African governments to support research in their own countries.
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Pauline Mwinzi and Uwem Ekpo; ARNTD Chair and Management Board member respectively, have together with other scientists published a systematic review in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal examining the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and treatment needs in sub-Saharan Africa. Using Bayesian geostatistical meta-analysis methods and taking environmental and socioeconomic variables into consideration, they predicted schistosomiasis infection risk and calculated the number of doses of praziquantel needed for prevention of morbidity. The work of these scientists is expected to inform the spatial targeting of schistosomiasis control interventions and also has the potential to inform policy makers on the number of treatments needed at different health administrative levels in endemic countries.
Lassa fever, a viral hemorrhagic disease, is estimated to infect 150,000–300,000 persons every year, killing ≈5,000. Within West Africa, Lassa fever is endemic to 2 regions: 1) Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia; and 2) Nigeria. Even within most of these countries, Lassa fever is endemic to certain areas but rare or completely absent in others. Zoonotic disease nidality describes the phenomenon in which geographic occurrence of a zoonotic disease is markedly focused or fragmented, as opposed to occurring continuously or spreading in a consistent pattern. Zoonotic disease nidality might result when only select phyletic groups in a host species are capable of serving as reservoirs for the pathogen.
Malaria and schistosomiasis coinfections are common, and chronic schistosomiasis has been implicated in affecting the severity of acute malaria. However, whether it enhances or attenuates malaria has been controversial due the lack of appropriately controlled human studies and relevant animal models. To examine this interaction, we conducted a randomized controlled study using the baboon (Papio anubis) to analyze the effect of chronic schistosomiasis on severe malaria. Two groups of baboons (n = 8 each) and a schistosomiasis control group (n = 3) were infected with 500 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. At 14 and 15 weeks postinfection, one group was given praziquantel to treat schistosomiasis infection.
Lassa fever, a viral haemorrhagic disease, affects 150,000–300,000 people in West Africa, causing up to 5,000 deaths per year. It was discovered in 1969 in Nigeria when American nurses died in Jos Evangel Hospital after a human-to-human transmission. The first case came from Lassa, a village located in Maiduguri region near the border with Cameroon (in present day Bornu state, Nigeria). Shortly after this first outbreak several cases were recorded in eastern Sierra Leone, leading to investigations to identify the virus reservoir among commensal rodents. The Multimammate rat Mastomys natalensis was then discovered as a reservoir host of Lassa virus (LASV) in 1974. Till now, there have been a number of reports suggesting other rodents might also be reservoirs of this virus.
Provision of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) resources has been advocated as necessary add-on strategy for sustainable control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) alongside annual mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole to endemic communities. This study investigated the burden of STH and status of WASH resources in eight rural communities in Aiyedaade LGA, Osun State, Nigeria.
Combatting Neglected Tropical Diseases - Now, ARNTD Executive Director contributes article to G20 Foundation's latest publication
Unlike other diseases of global health importance such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, Ebola etc., Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are not “a disease” but “a complex constellation of diseases”. The diseases labelled as NTDs are often curable and preventable, however they become complicated on account of their far reaching cumulative negative effect they have on individuals and societies. The World has recognized how NTDs are a major impediment to development and the fight against poverty, reflected in the prominence given to NTDs in the G7 agenda in Germany 2015 and in Japan 2016, and to specific inclusion of NTDs within the health targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015.
Six African Scientists Receive Inaugural Grants for Operational Research on NTDs
Today, the first-ever grantees of the African Researchers’ Small Grants program were announced by the African Research Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases (ARNTD), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Coalition for Operational Research on Neglected Tropical Diseases (COR-NTD). The winners, selected from a pool of nearly 100 applicants, will receive support to conduct operational research to address issues facing efforts to control and eliminate neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in their home countries of Cameroon, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Togo.
“The Small Grants Program provides USAID with the opportunity to invest in young researchers and the next generation of leaders in Africa,” said Emily Wainwright, Chief, Neglected Tropical Diseases Division, USAID.
Nairobi, Kenya- The Governing Council of the African Academy of Science (AAS) has appointed Dr Tom Kariuki as Interim Executive Director, to serve from 7 March 2017 until a new Executive Director is selected.
Dr Kariuki is an immunologist of distinction, Fellow of the AAS and one who has served as AAS Treasurer from 2013-2014 prior to assuming his position as the Director of the AAS/NEPAD Agency’s agenda setting and funding platform – Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in Science in Africa (AESA).
The African Academy of Sciences (AAS) announced today that it has selected 22 early career scientists through a merit based review process for the second cohort of the AAS Affiliates Programme that recognises exceptional young scholars.
The 22 were selected from the five regions of Africa to be AAS Affiliates from 2017 to 2021. “These young scholars have shown promise in their fields and are deserving of the recognition,” said AAS Executive Director Prof Berhanu Abegaz. “We will work with their institutions to provide them with opportunities to develop their careers and to leverage their skills and passion to contribute to Africa’s development.”
Seventy percent of Cameroonian women of childbearing age carry one of the world’s most common parasites Toxoplasma gondii. The resulting infection, toxoplasmosis, can have devastating effects on pregnant women and their babies and cause serious health complications in people with weakened immune systems.
There is no safe and effective treatment for toxoplasmosis, but Dr. Fabrice Fekam Boyom, a professor of biochemistry at the Université de Yaoundé I in Cameroon, is working towards changing that.
The University of Tübingen has set up its first professorship in an African country. The post is sponsored by the German government-financed German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) and backed by the government of Gabon. The new professor will be based at the Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné (CERMEL) in Gabon and focus on immuno-epidemiology and clinical infection research in the tropics. Dr. Ayola Akim Adegnika has been appointed to the post for an initial five year period. Dr. Adegnika is currently co-director at CERMEL in the Gabonese town of Lambaréné, some 240km southeast of the capital Libreville.
The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) is delighted to announce the honorary appointment of Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté as an NTD Ambassador.
Louis-Albert is a highly regarded senior academician and researcher who is well placed to advocate for NTD donors, governments and organizations to maintain, and increase, their commitments to achieve the World Health Organization’s Roadmap goals.
Louis-Albert will work to raise the profile of NTDs among policymakers, media and general public of the plight faced by people afflicted by them, and the importance in controlling and preventing NTDs.